Thursday, 26 August 2010

The Topic Marker

Kareyku employs what is called a Topic Marker. This marker varies greatly depending on the language, in the case of Kareyku it not only serves to mark the topic of a statement, but also can be translated as "in regards to" or "talking about...", so for instance you can use it in a sentence like

mas-ejen    qappa-ka-l        pilé
food-TOP   eat-2TR-EVD    fish
Regarding food, I'm known to eat fish

It can also mean "I prefer fish" or "I like fish the most". The topic marker being -ejen and replacing any final vowels, it can also be used with pronouns, in which case they have some different kind of forms, so ikan '1st sg.' would turn into ikejen and pen '2nd sg.' would be pejen. So, as can be seen it is used to specify.

kar-ejen       tana-ka-ch        Karey-qa
speech-TOP   speak-2TR-EVD   Kareyku-INSTR
As regards to languages, I speak Kareyku

This last one uses the suffix -qa which means 'by means of' and is used in such constructions. Note that the name Kareyku will be rendered Karey- when any suffixes are used. It can also be used in other senses, for example with the question adverb to specify the subject of the question

Cham-ejen   tana-da-s?
what-TOP      speak-3EV-EVD?
What are you talking about?

And this would be answered of course using the topic marker, so

about a house/houses

Always remembering that it can refer to a single house previously mentioned or maybe to houses in general, depending on the context.

Wednesday, 11 August 2010

Declarative particles

As Kareyku lacks a copular verb it relies in declarative particles. This particles are used to express a state or mood, there are three declarative particles in Kareyku. The first particle is la which mean a 'state or mood in which the subject is feeling or being', so, for example, to express such a construction as 'I'm happy' would be realized in Kareyku as

wilé la
happiness DECL
I'm happy or I feel like happiness

In this particular case the person feeling happy is gathered from context. If I express it, or declare it, I am the one who must be happy. The second particle is ku which means 'to be in a stance for' barely.

tanaka ku
speak-1T DECL
I'm ready to speak to you

To express you are ready to engage some activity. It also depends on the context, but in this case the one who is ready is the same as the subject of the verb. There is a subtle difference between the two of the above expressed declarative particles. For example to express to different things about one verb

qappaka la
eat-2T DECL
I feel like eating or I'm hungry/I want to eat

compare to

qappaka ku
eat-2T DECL
I'm ready to eat

The first could be understood to mean 'I'm hungry' or 'I'm in the mood to eat (something)' this relies heavily in context, while the second can be said when you take your sit at the table and want the feast to commence, or maybe when you want someone to start serving the food. You can always add evidentials to these. The last declarative particle is shu this is not really a particle in the same sense as the others, but Kareyku grammarians still do group it as a declarative particle. It means completion of an action or to do something until the end. This is mostly used when ordering something to be carried through.

qappada shu!
eat-3T DECL
Eat up! or eat it all!

You can hear a mother say to her child. Needless to say it has some other uses, such as if someone wants to tell you something but takes a lot to finally say what he means to say, you can always snarl

ikan tanada shu!
1st say-3T DECL
Tell me already!

In this sentence the meaning is the same as the translation, and you can thus see how important context is in Kareyku specially in relation to the declarative particles which are widely used. This is the same kind of particle you use in the respectful greeting pendibeki wilé ladome, the evidential always attached to the declarative particle.